Dudas

¿Cuántos tipos de psicoterapias existen?

Existen un gran número de tipos específicos de psicoterapia o modalidades técnicas especificas, pero la gran mayoría se encuentran en tres modelos

Psicoanalisis

Es el primer modelo de psicoterapia estructurada, antes de existir no había un abordaje psicologico de los trastornos mentales.

El psicoanálisis se basa en la teoría psicoanálitica postulada por Sigmund Freud entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX, y que ha ido reactualizándose , concibe nuestro psiquismo como algo dinámico compuesto por una parte consciente y otra inconsciente, siendo esta última la que sobredetermina nuestra conducta

Parte de la base de que los problemas del presente tienen su base en conflictos del pasado no resueltos .de carácter inconsciente, de forma que el sujeto repite una y otra vez el mismo modelo de comportamiento.

Es conocida por el uso del diván, de la introspección, de la asociación libre. Se le pide al paciente que diga todo lo que piensa sin omitir el más mínimo detalle, por muy insignificante o ridículo que parezca, porque todo tiene un sentido, incluso los sueños. De esta forma se hace una reconstrucción de lo vivenciado desde la infancia más temprana, en definitiva pretende hacer consciente lo inconsciente para que el sujeto deje de repetir el mismo modelo. Es una terapia que se carácteriza por tramientos largos, a dos o tres sesiones por semana.

El psicoanalisis fue evolucionando para adapatarse a los trastornos de su tiempo y dio origen a otra modalidades psicoanalíticas, como la psicoterapia psicoanalítica o la terapia breve psicoanalitica, con objetivos mas limitados y de menor duración, existiendo hoy en dia modalidades que abordan problemas puntuales hasta en seis sesiones (Bellack y Siegel).

Terapia Humanista 

La psicología humanista es un modelo de psicoterapia desarrollado por C.Rogers, que valora a la persona como sujeto individual, resalta su carácter único, y está en contra por tanto de las clasificaciones. No suelen emitir diagnósticos, ya que no considera enfermos a los sujetos y porque concibe a cada sujeto como único, por tanto no clasificable dentro de un grupo. Utilizan el término de cliente, evitando el de paciente y se basa esencialmente en el potencial de crecimiento que tiene cada sujeto

Es un modelo positivo porque considera que nacemos con un potencial de desarrollo que tiende a madurar, y con capacidad de tomar las riendas de su propia vida. Rechaza el concepto de enfermedad y el de paciente y lo sustituye por el de cliente.

Esta terapia se basa en la empatía, en la conexión psicólogo-paciente. Se convertirá en tu "mejor amigo". El trabajo del psicólogo no es pues tratar, sino hacer crecer el carácter personal. Le importa el presente, y no el pasado. Actúa cuando ese proceso de maduración se para porque es ahí cuando surgen los enfrentamientos psicológicos. Es parte de su forma de trabajo el considerar positivamente y aceptar todo cuanto diga el "cliente" sin condiciones de valor, evitando corregirle o dirigirle hacia criterios preestablecidos.
Se aplica principalmente a los trastornos del desarrollo psicológico.

Terapia cognitivo-conductual

Desde una perspectiva cognitivo-conductual se sabe que para resolver un problema hay que modificar determinadas conductas, éstas en un sentido muy amplio, considerándose entre ellas los pensamientos, los sentimientos y las emociones.
La psicoterapia cognitivo-conductual tiene dos partes, por una es la reflexión conjunta sobre el problema. Es responsabilidad del paciente contribuir plenamente a la definición del problema que no es más que aquello que le preocupa y le lleva a consulta.

Una vez establecida la visión que el paciente tiene de su problema, bajo la guía de su terapeuta, se realiza un análisis funcional del problema, enunciándolo en términos operativos y modificables. Se fijan así los objetivos de la terapia y comienza el tratamiento. Este consiste en el establecimiento de un programa para modificar conductas, pensamientos y sentimientos relevantes para el mantenimiento del problema.

 

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SELECT Tables:
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